Thursday, April 10, 2014

ज्ञानज्योती सावित्रीबाई फुले





११ एप्रिल, महात्मा जोतीराव फुले यांची जयंती..त्यानिमित्त सावित्रीबाई फुले यांच्या जीवनकार्यावर एक प्रकाशझोत
KkuT;ksrh lkfo=hckbZ Qqys
Hkkjrkr fyaxHkko] tkrhO;oLFkk vkf.k ofxZ;Hksn gs ‘kks”k.kkps vkf.k i{kikrkps izeq[k L=ksr vkgsr- ;k frUghapk ,df=r fopkj d#u Ik;kZa;h lektO;oLFksP;k fufeZrhlkBh T;kauh dke dsys R;k lektØkafrdkjdkae/;s lkfo=hckbZ vkf.k tksrhjko Qqys vxzLFkkuh vkgsr- lkfo=hckbZ vkf.k R;kaps irh egkRek tksrhjko gs ns’kkP;k lkekftd vkf.k ‘kS{kf.kd bfrgklkrys ,d vkxGsosxGs tksMiss gksrs- nhM’ks o”kkZiwohZ L=h&iq#”k lekurk vkf.k lkekftd U;k; ;kaph pGoG mHkkj.;klkBh R;kauh dMoh >qat fnyh- KkufufeZrh vkf.k Kkuizlkj gs R;kauh thou/;s; ekuys- fL=;k] nfyr&cgqtu oxkZph mUurh vkf.k f’k{k.kizlkj ;klkBh R;kauh vk;q”;Hkj okgwu ?ksrys- laiw.kZ ns’kkr eqyhaph ‘kkGk vkf.k ^usVhOg yk;czjh* loZizFke lq# dj.;kps Js; ;k irhiRuhdMsp tkrs- ns’kkrhy ^lk{kjrk vfHk;kukph* lq#okr R;kauhp 1854&55 e/;s dsyh- QlfoY;k xsysY;k czkEg.k fo/kokaP;k ckGari.kklkBh vkf.k R;kaP;k laxksiuklkBh 1863 lkyh Lor%P;k ?kjkr R;kauh ^ckygÙ;k izfrca/kd x`g* dk<ys- ^lR;’kks/kd fookgi)r* ‘kks/kwu R;kauh MkeMkSy] gqaMk o HkVth ukdk#u fookg ykoys- Lor%P;k ?kjkrhy ik.;kpk gkSn vLi`’;kalkBh [kqyk d#u tkfrfueqZyukP;k dk;ZØekyk FksV gkr ?kkryk- ckyfookgkauk fojks/k d#up rs Fkkacys ukghr] rj R;kauh fo/kokaps iqufoZokg lekjaHkiwoZd ?kMowu vk.kys- Lor%yk ewyckG >kys ukgh rsOgk ,dk czkEg.k fo/kospk eqyxk ^nÙkd* ?ksÅu R;kyk oS|fd; f’k{k.k fnys vkf.k R;kpk vkarjtkrh; fookg d#u fnyk-
     ns’kkrhy L=h ‘kqnzfr’kwnz oxkZph lkekftd] lkaLd`frd vkf.k ‘kS{kf.kd v’kh Økafrdkjd pGoG mHkkj.;kps ,sfrgkfld dke ;k tksMI;kus dsys- R;kaP;k dkekps o.kZu djrkuk ,dk vukfed i=dkjkus ^fn iwuk vkWC>OgZj vW.M MsDdu fodyh* ;k o`Ùki=kr fyfgys gksrs] ßgs dke Eg.kts fganw laLd`rhP;k bfrgklkrhy ,dk uO;k ;qxkpk vkjaHk gks;-Þ [kÚ;k vFkkZus gh ,dk lexz ØkafriokZPkh lq#okrp gksrh-  
     tksrhjkokaP;k iRuh] vuq;k;h o lgdkjh Eg.kwup vktoj lkfo=hckbZapk fopkj dj.;kr vkyk vkgs- izR;{kkr vusdnk lkfo=hckbZ usR;k vkf.k tksrhjko ek= dk;ZdrsZ fdaok vuq;k;h vlY;kps iqjkos [kqí tksrhjkokauhp fnysys vkgs- lR;’kks/kd fookg pGoG] ckygÙ;k izfrca/kd x`g] nq”dkGkrhy fOgDVksfj;k ckykJe vkf.k ds’kooiuk fo#)pk ukfHkdkapk lai ;k pkjgh fBdk.kh usr`Ro lkfo=hckbZaps gksrs vls tksrhjkokauhp ueqn dsysys vkgs-
 lkfo=hckbZaP;k tUe 3 tkusokjh] 1831 jksth >kyk- iq.;kiklwu lqekjs 50 fdyksehVj nwj iq.ks&lkrkjk jLR;kojhy f’kjoGiklwu 5 fdyksehVjoj vlysys uk;xko gs R;kaps tUexko- lkfo=hckbZ ;k [kaMksth uso’ks ;kaP;k T;s”B dU;k gksR;k- 1840 lkyh o;kP;k 10 O;k o”khZ R;kaPkk tksrhjkoka’kh fookg >kyk- 11 ,fizy] 1827 jksth iq.;kr tUeysys tksrhjko R;kosGh 13 o”kkZaps gksrs-
yXukaurj tksrhjkokauh lkfo=hckbZauk ?kjhp f’k{k.k fnY;kps ‘kkldh; dkxni=kao#u fnlwu ;srs- 1 es] 1851 rs 30 ,fizy] 1852 P;k ‘kS{kf.kd vgokykr EgVY;kizek.ks] ßtksrhjkokauh Lor%P;k iRuhyk ?kjh f’k{k.k nsÅu f’kf{kdk cuoys-Þ 22 uksOgsacj] 1951 P;k ^ckWEcs xkfMZ;u* ;k o`Ùki=krhy ckreho#u lkfo=hckbZaP;k iq<hy f’k{k.kkph tckcnkjh tksrhjkokaps fe= l[kkjke ;’koar ijkatis vkf.k ds’ko f’kojke HkokGdj ¼tks’kh½ ;kauh ?ksrY;kps fnlrs- lkfo=hckbZauh vgenuxj ;sFks QjkjckbZaP;k o iq.;kr fepsyckbZaP;k ukWeZy Ldwye/;s v/;kiukps izf’k{k.kgh ?ksrys gksrs- R;keqGs lkfo=hckbZa ákp ^vk| Hkkjrh; f’kf{kdk* vkf.k ^eq[;k/;kfidk* gksr] gs rRdkyhu nLr,sotkao#u Li”V gksrs- lkfo=hckbZauh eqyhaP;k ‘kkGsr f’kdfo.;klkBh ?kjkP;k macjB~;kckgsj Vkdysys ifgys ikÅy ghp vk/kqfud Hkkjrh; L=hP;k ^lkoZtfud thoukph* lq#okr gks;-
vkiY;k ‘kS{kf.kd dkekaph uksan djrkuk tksrhjkokauh 19 vkWDVkscj] 1882 jksth ‘kklukP;k ^gaVj f’k{k.k vk;ksxkyk* lknj dsysY;k fuosnukr EgVys vkgs] ßftyk Lodh; Eg.krk ;sbZy v’kh ,dgh eqyhaph ‘kkGk R;kdkGh ;sFks uOgrh] Eg.kwu r’kh ‘kkGk LFkkiu dj.;kph izsj.kk eyk >kyh- eh vkf.k ek>h iRuh v’kk mHk;rkauh fdR;sd o”ksZi;Zar R;k ‘kkGsr dke dsys- f’k{k.k eaMGhps v/;{k lj vfLdZu isjh vkf.k ljdkjps rRdkyhu lfpo yqElMsu ;kauh eqyhaP;k ;k ‘kkGkauk HksVh nsÅu f’k{k.k {ks=kr lq# >kysY;k ;k uO;k pGoGhcíy lek/kku O;Dr dsys-Þ
15 lIVsacj 1853 P;k Kkuksn;yk fnysY;k ekfgrhr tksrhjko Eg.krkr] ßizFke eukr vkys] dh vkbZP;k ;ksxkus eqykaph th lq/kkj.kwd gksrs] rh Qkjp pkaxyh vlrs- ts yksd ;k ns’kkps lq[kkph o dY;k.kkph dkGth ckGxrkr R;kauh gk ns’k mÙkekoLFksr ;kok ;klkBh bdMhy ck;dkaP;k fLFkrhdMs vo’; y{k fnYgs ikfgts o gj,d iz;Ru d#Uk R;kal fo|k f’kdfoyh ikfgts- Eg.kwu eqyhaph ‘kkGk izFke ?kkryh- ijarq R;kauk f’kdfoY;keqGs vkeP;k tkrokY;kal Qkj okbZV okVys o izR;{k ekÖ;k ckikus ns[khy vkEgkyk ?kjkrwu ?kkyfoys- ‘kkGslkBh dks.kh tkxk nsbZuk- cka/kko;kl #i;s uOgrs- yksd vkiyh eqys ikBoko;kl r;kj uOgrs- f’k{k.kkiklwu dldls ykHk vkgsr] gs vkiY;k tkrokY;kal letkowu R;kaph [kk=h dsyh-Þ
Ok;kP;k vo?;k 21 O;k o”khZ tksrhjkokauh ,dk ,sfrgkfld dkekyk gkr ?kkryk gksrk- R;kauk laiw.kZ lkFk ns.kkjh R;kaph iRuh R;kosGh vo?kh 17 o”kkZaph gksrh- gtkjks o”ksZ Kkuoafpr jkfgysY;k ‘kwnz lektkus gs ,d vfj”V vkgs vls ekuwu lukrukaP;k lkax.;ko#u lkfo=hckbZ&tksrhjkokaP;k dkekyk fojks/k djk;yk lq#okr dsyh- R;kauk ?kj lksMkos ykxys rjh ;k ftíh vkf.k /;s;oknh irhiRuhus vkiys dk;Z lksMys ukgh- mnfuokZgklkBh fe’kuP;k ‘kkGsr v/kZosG uksdjh d#u tksrhjko mjysyk osG ‘kkGsyk nsr rj lkfo=hckbZ iw.kZosG foukosru f’kdo.;kps dke djhr vlr- rRdkyhu o`Ùki=s Eg.krkr] ß;k irhiRuhauk vusdnk tsok;ykgh Qqjlr feGr uls-Þ R;kaP;k ;k dkekr R;kauk xksoaMs] HkokGdj] tks’kh] fHkMs] fpiGw.kdj] ygwth oLrkn lkGos] jk.kck egkj] /kqjkth vIikth pkaHkkj] x.kw f’kokth ekax vknhaps  lgdk;Z ykHkys-  
lkfo=hckbZaps ?kj iq.;kP;k iwoZ Hkkxkr] xjhc] nfyr] d”VdÚ;kaP;k oLrhr gksrs- vktwcktwP;k ;k lkaLd`frd Ik;kZoj.kkpk R;kaP;k tM.k?kM.khr eksBk okVk gksrk- lukruh HkVthaP;k rØkjho#u ygkui.kh tksrhjkokaps f’k{k.k R;kaP;k ofMykauh can dsys vlrk R;kaph gq’kkjh vksG[kwu eqU’kh xQkj csx vkf.k fyftVlkgsc ;kauh xksfoanjkokaph letwr dk<wu tksrhjkokaps f’k{k.k iqUgk pkyw dsys gksrs-
nfyr lektkps nSU; nwj dj.;klkBh f’k{k.k gkp ,deso ekxZ vlY;kph R;kaph /kkj.kk gksrh- rs Eg.krkr] ß;k ns’kkr vKku] tkrhHksn] Hkk”kkHksn gs nq”V jksx vkgsr- lkjsp yksd nq%[kkr vlrkuk dks.kkl enr djkoh gk iz’u vlyk rjh dks.kkykp enr u djrk  mxhp clkos ;kis{kk Qkj nq%[k T;koj vlsy R;kal vk/kh enr |koh gs ;ksX; gks;- tkrhHksnkaeqGs vfuok;Z nq%[ks egkj] ekax ;kal lkslkoh ykxrkr- ;ktdfjrka R;kaph fo|k}kjkusp nkn ykxsy ;kLro R;klkBhp izFke dke pkyw dsys-Þ egkj] ekax ;kauk f’kdfo.;klkj[ks ns’kkps nqljs dks.krsgh fgr ukgh] v’kh [kw.kxkB cka/kwu R;kauh ;k dkekyk izkjaHk dsyk-
,d pkaxyk fopkj ,dV~;kus dj.;k,soth lefopkjh eaMGhauh ,d= ;sÅu rs dke djkos ;klkBh R;kauh laLFkk ¼eaMGh½ LFkkiu dsyh- xsY;k ‘krdkr laLFkkRed dkekaps tkGs mHkkjys xsY;keqGsp ns’kkr vla[; dkes mHkh jkfgyh- ^eaMGhdj.k* gh vk/kqfud Hkkjrkph ik;kHkj.kh Bjyh- lkfo=hckbZ &tksrhjkokauh ¼1½ ^usVhOg fQesy LdwYl] iq.ks* ¼2½ ^fn lkslk;Vh QkWj izeksfVax nh ,T;qds’ku vkWQ egkjl~] ekaXt vW.M ,DlsVªkt* v’kk nksu f’k{k.k laLFkk lq# dsY;k- ;k laLFkkekQZr R;kauh iq.ks ifjljkr 18 ‘kkGkaps tkGs fo.kys-
lkfo=hckbZ&Tkksrhjkokauh vkiys ‘kS{kf.kd dk;Z 1851 lkyh lq# dsys] vlk dkgh vH;kldkapk let vkgs] ijarq rks ;ksX; fnlr ukgh- gs dke R;kauh 1848 lkyhp lq# dsys gksrs vls ^Kkuksn;* o ^ckWEcs xkfMZ;u* ;k o`Ùki=kao#u fl) gksrs- tksrhjkokaP;k e`R;wuarj 18 fMlsacj] 1890 jksth Kkuksn;kus tksrhjkokaoj J)katyhij vxzys[k fyfgyk gksrk- R;kr R;kauh 1848 lkyh gs dke lq# dsY;kph LoPN uksan dj.;kr vkyh vkgs- 22 uksOgsacj] 1851 P;k ckWEcs xkfMZ;uus ;kcíy foLr`r uksan fnyh vkgs- ß1848 e/;s lnkf’ko cYykG xksoaMs gs vgenuxj ;sFks tTtkP;k dpsjhr uksdjhl ykxys] rsOgk R;kauh tksrh xksfoan Qqys ;k vkiY;k fe=kyk uxj ;sFks usys gksrs- ,ds fno’kh rs nks?ks fel QjkjP;k eqyhaP;k ‘kkGk igko;kl xsys- rsFkhy O;oLFkk c?kwu R;kauk vkiY;k ns’kkrhy fL=;kauk f’k{k.k fnys tkr ukgh ;kph [kar okVyh- Qqys iq.;kl xsys o R;kauh fe=kauk gs dke gkrh ?ks.;kpk csr lkafxryk- R;kaP;k iRuhyk f’k{k.k nsÅu R;kauh ‘kkGk lq# dsyh- ex iq.;krhy egkj&ekaxkalkBh ‘kkGk dk<yh- i.k iq<s lgkp efgU;kar nqnZSo vks<oys- yksdkaP;k ew[kZ iwoZxzgkPkk izHkko iMwu R;kaP;k ofMykauh R;kauk ?kjkckgsj dk<ys o ‘kkGk can iMyh- xksoaMs iq.;kl vkys o R;kauh lkfo=hckbZauk uxjkl usys- ikolkG~;kP;k izkjaHkh R;k ijr vkY;k- ex ds’ko f’kojke HkokGdj ;kauh R;kauk f’k{k.k |k;ph tckcnkjh vkiY;k f’kjkoj ?ksryh- ‘kkGkrwu f’kdfo.;kl mi;ksxh gksrhy v’k r#.k L=h f’k{kdkaPkk oxZgh ?ks.;klkBh Bjys- HkokGdjkauh [kViV d#u iq.;kr fL=;k teowu R;kauk f’k{k.k fnys-Þ
v'kk izdkjs vkWxLV 1848 e/;s lq# >kysys o e/;arjh can >kysys gs dke 1851 e/;s iqu’p lq# >kys-
eqacbZP;k iqjkfHkys[kkxkjkrhy nLrkostkae/;s tksrhjkokauh vkiY;k f’k{k.k laLFksyk vkfFkZd enr feGkoh Eg.kwu ‘kklukdMs dsysyk 5 Qscqzokjh 1852 pk vtZ vkgs- ;kP;kp nqlÚ;k izrhlkscr iwuk dkWystps izkpk;Z estj dWaMh ;kaps f’kQkjli= vkgs- R;kuqlkj eqyhaP;k ifgY;k rhu ‘kkGk vuqØes 3 tqyS 1851] 17 uksOgsacj 1851 vkf.k 15 ekpZ 1852 ;k fno’kh v..kklkgsc fpiGw.kdjkapk okMk] jkLrk isB o osrkG isB ;sFks lq# >kY;k- R;k ‘kkGkae/;s izR;sdh 4] 3 o 1 f’k{kd vlY;kps vkf.k rsFks 48] 51 o 33 brD;k eqyh f’kdr vlY;kps uewn dj.;kr vkys vkgs- ;krY;k ifgY;k ‘kkGsr eq[; f’kf{kdk ¼Mistress½ lkfo=hckbZ Qqys vlwu R;kaP;kcjkscj fo”.kwiar eksjs’oj vkf.k foÎy HkkLdj gs mif’k{kd f’kdfor vlr- ifgY;k ‘kkGsP;k iVkoj ifgY;k fno’kh 8 eqyh gksR;k- R;kaph la[;k yodjp 48 oj xsyh-
‘kkGkaps v/kh{kd nknksck ikaMqjax ;kauh 16 vkWDVkscj 1851 jksth ‘kkGsrhy eqyhaph ijh{kk ?ksryh- ‘kkGk lq# gksÅu Qkj FkksMk dkG gksÅugh eqyhaph izxrh y{k.kh; gksrh- ‘kkGkaph izFke okf”kZd ijh{kk 17 Qsczqokjh 1852 jksth >kyh rj nqljh okf”kZd ijh{kk iwuk dkWyste/;s 12 Qscqzokjh 1853 jksth >kyh- ;k ijh{kk c?kk;yk iq.;kr vHkwriwoZ xnhZ teY;kph uksan ;k vgokykae/;s vkgs- dkWystP;k vkokjkr 3]000 gwu vf/kd yksd teys gksrs- rj R;kgwu vf/kd xnhZ ckgsj gksrh- ;kosGh 237 eqyhaph ijh{kk ?ks.;kr vkyh- laLFksP;k okf”kZd tek[kpkZaps vkWfMV d#u ?ks.;kr vkys- oxZ.kh vkf.k pkydkapk lgHkkx ;k}kjs 1947 #i;s vkB vk.ks laLFksus feGfoys gksrs- ‘kklukP;k nf{k.kk izkbZt QaMkdMwu okf”kZd 900 #i;s vuqnku feGr vls- lkoZtfud iS’kkapk pks[k vkf.k rRdkG fg’kksc tkghj dj.;kps gs czhn lkfo=hckbZ&tksrhjkokauh vk;q”;Hkj ikGys-
vLi`’;kaP;k ‘kkGkaP;k ijh{kkapk 2 Qsczqokjh 1858 pk lfoLrj Nkihy vgoky iqjkfHkys[kkxkjkr miyC/k vlwu gh ijh{kk ckckth eukth ;kaP;k dksp QWDVjhe/;s ?ks.;kr vkyh gksrh- R;k vk/khph ijh{kk 29 vkWxLV 1856 jksth >kyh gksrh- laLFksP;k 3 ‘kkGk gksR;k- R;kr Hkj ?kky.;kph laLFksph bPNk vlrkuk 1857 P;k caMkuarj ;qjksfi;u eaMGhauh enrhpk gkr vk[kMrk ?ksrY;keqGs laLFkk vkfFkZd ladVkr lkiMyh gksrh- nf{k.kk izkbZt desVhrwu njo”khZ 300 #i;s enr feGr vls- ‘kkGsP;k bekjrfu/khlkBh ‘kklukus 5000 #i;s eatwj dsys gksrs- vLi`’; oxkZe/;s uqdrhp dqBs f’k{k.kkph xksMh fuekZ.k gksr vlrkuk laLFksoj ‘kkGk can dj.;kph ikGh ;sr vlY;kcíy vgokykr nq%[k izdV dj.;kr vkys gksrs- rhu ‘kkGkae/;s ,dw.k 258 fo|kFkhZ f’kdr gksrs- ;k ‘kkGkae/;s tksrhjkokaps lgdkjh x.kw f’kokth ekax o /kqjkth vIikth pkaHkkj gsgh f’k{kd Eg.kwu dke djhr gksrs- laLFksP;k dk;Zokgkauh ‘kklukyk ikBfoysY;k i=kr EgVys vkgs dh] ßeaMGkph vkfFkZd ifjfLFkrh pkaxyh ulY;keqGs f’k{kdkauk eksBs osru nsrk ;sr ukgh] Eg.kwu f’k{kd tsFks vf/kd ixkj feGrks frdMs tkrkr- e/kwue/kwu vls f’k{kd ‘kkGk lksMwu xsY;keqGs ‘kkGsps uqdlku gksrs- ‘kkGsP;k eq[;k/;kfidk lkfo=hckbZ g;kauh L=h f’k{k.kkP;k lq/kkj.kslkBh mnkji.ks thfor lefiZr dj.;kps Bjfoys vkgs- ák ckbZ vkiys dke foukosru djrkr- tltlk Kkukpk izlkj gksbZy rlrlk fL=;kauk f’k{k.kkiklwu dks.krk Qk;nk vkgs gs yksdkauk dGwu ;sbZy v’kh vkEgkyk mesn okVrs-Þ
f’k{k.k eaMGkps v/;{k ukenkj tkWu okWMZu ;kauh ,dk lekjaHkkr tkghji.ks lkafxrys dh] ßtsOgk eh izFke 1851 e/;s iq.;kr vk;qDr Eg.kwu xsyks] R;kosGh rsFkhy eqyhaP;k ‘kkGkauk eh HksV fnyh- T;waP;k HkhrheqGs ojP;k etY;kps njokts can d#u f[kz’pu yksdkaP;k lq#okrhP;k ‘kkGk pkyr] R;kaph vkBo.k eyk frFks >kyh- R;k ‘kkGsph f’kf{kdk ,dk ekG~;kph iRuh gksrh- vkiY;k ns’kcka/kokaps dsfoyok.ks vKku nwj d#u R;kaPkk m)kj dj.;klkBh Lor%P;k iRuhus lkg;Hkwr Ogkos Eg.kwu R;kus fryk f’kdfoys gksrs- ekÖ;k ns[kr frus eqyhauk dkgh iz’u fopkjkosr Eg.kwu eh fryk fouarh dsyh- dkgh r#.k fookfgr fL=;kapk izf’k{k.k oxZgh rsFks pkyfoyk tkr gksrk-Þ
lkfo=hckbZ&tksrhjkokaP;k ‘kkGkaph izxrh y{k.kh; gksrh- mPpo.khZ; eqykalkBh ljdkjh ‘kkGk vlr- ;k ‘kkGsrY;k ,dk eqykus ^iwuk vkWC>jOgZj* e/;s 29 es 1852 jksth fyfgys gksrs] ßtksrhjkokaP;k ‘kkGkarhy eqyhaph iVla[;k ljdkjh ‘kkGkarhy eqykais{kk ngkiVhus eksBh vkgs- R;kps dkj.k eqyhauk f’kdfo.;kph th O;oLFkk vkgs rh eqykaP;k ‘kkldh; ‘kkGkarhy O;oLFksis{kk vusd iVhauh Js”B ntkZph vkgs--- tj v’khp ifjfLFkrh pkyw jkfgyh] rj tksrhjkokaP;k eqyh ljdkjh eqykais{kk ojp< Bjrhy o [kjks[kjhp ;sR;k ijh{kse/;s vki.k eksBk fot; feGow vls R;kauk okVr vkgs- tj ‘kkldh; f’k{k.k eaMGkus ;koj mi;;kstuk dsyh ukgh rj fL=;kauh iq#”kkaoj ekr dsyh gs ikgwu vkEgk iq#”kkauk yktsus ekuk [kkyh ?kkykO;k ykxrhy-Þ
fczVh’k ljdkjus tksrhjkokaP;k ák ,sfrgkfld dkekps eksy tk.kwu R;kapk tkghj xkSjo dsyk- 16 uksOgsacj 1852 jksth foJkeckx okM~;krhy HkO; lekjaHkkr R;kauk ‘kkytksMh viZ.k dj.;kr vkyh-
lkfo=hckbZ&tksrhjkokapk loZ eqykeqyhauk Jeiz/kku f’k{k.k ns.;koj Hkj gksrk- R;kauk fopkj’khy vkf.k Lokoyach cufo.;klkBh R;kauh 1852 P;k vgokykr iq<hy er ekaMys gksrs- ßIndustrial Department should be attached to the schools in which children would learn useful trades and crafts and be able on leaving school to maintain themselves comfortably and independently.Þ r’kh O;oLFkk R;kauh fuekZ.k dsyh-
izkFkfed f’k{k.kkrhy xGrhpk fparktud iz’u R;k dkGkr vf/kdp gksrk- R;koj R;kauh O;kogkfjd mik; ;kstys- R;kaph dkj.ks ‘kks/kwu R;kekxs nkfjnz~; vkf.k f’k{k.kkph v#ph gh eksB;k izek.kkr dkj.khHkwr vlY;kus R;koj mik;;kstu ‘kks/kyh- xjhc eqykeqyhauk ^ixkj* ns.;kph O;oLFkk d#u R;kauk vkoMsy vlk vH;klØe r;kj dj.;koj Hkj fnyk- fo|kH;klkiklwu ^ykHk* o ^lq[ks* dks.kdks.krh vkgsr ;kph vksG[k d#u nsÅu nfyr&cgqtukae/;s tkxj.kkph eksghe lq# dsyh- ikydkalkBh ^lk{kjrk vfHk;ku* gkrh ?ksÅu lexz f’k{k.kkpk ,dkfRed izdYi mHkkjyk- t=k[ks=k] tkriapk;r] va/kJ)k vkf.k nkfjnz~; ;k lkÚ;k dkj.kkaoj lkfo=hckbZauh dsysyh ekr vktgh ekxZn’kZd Bjkoh v’kh vkgs-
ßf’k{k.kkrwu thoukrhy ^[kjs[kksVs* fuoM.;kph {kerk vkyh ikfgtsÞ gk R;kapk vkxzg gksrk- eqykeqyhaph Lora= izfrHkk eqDri.ks meyw ykxkoh] ;klkBh rs fo’ks”k iz;Ru’khy vlr- R;kauk R;kr feGkysys ;’kgh y{k.kh; vkgs- R;kaP;k ‘kkGsrhy ,dk fpeqjM~;k eqyhyk ikfjrksf”kd Lohdkj.;klkBh O;klihBkoj cksyo.;kr vkys] rsOgk rh v/;{kkauk mLQqrZi.ks Eg.kkyh] ßlj] eyk c{khl Eg.kwu [kkÅ&[ksG.kh udksr- vkEgkyk ‘kkGsps xazFkky; gos vkgs-Þ gh eqyxh njjkst jk=h 12 oktsi;Zar vH;klkr cqMwu tkr vlY;kph xksM rØkj frP;k ikydkauh dsyh- ‘kkGsps LoPN vkf.k vkjksX;nk;h okrkoj.k] vfHk#ph lao/kZu vkf.k pkfj«;&fuekZ.k g;k xks”VhadMs dVk{kkus y{k fnys tkr vlY;kcíy ‘kkldh; fujh{kdkauh dkSrqd dsysys vkgs-
lkfo=hckbZaP;k eqDrk ukokP;k ekarx lektkrhy ,dk fo|kfFkZuhus Lor%ps vkRedFku dj.kkjk fuca/k fyfgyk gksrk- 1855 lkyh 14 o”kkZaP;k ;k fo|kfFkZuhus fyfgysyk gk fuca/k ejkBh v{kj okM~-e;kryk ,d Js”B ekunaM Bjkok] brdk egÙokpk vkgs- vk/kqfud nfyr lkfgR;kph rh lq#okrp ekuk;yk goh- rh fyfgrs] ßykMw[kkÅ czkEg.k yksd rj Eg.krkr dh] osn gh vkephp eÙkk vkgs- czkEg.ksrjkal osnkapk vf/kdkj ukgh- ;ko#u tj vkEgkal /keZiqLrd ikg.;kph eksdGhd ukgh rj vkEgh /keZjfgr vkgksr vls lkQ fnlrs dh ukgh cjs\ gs Hkxokuk] rqtdMwu vkysyk dks.krk /keZ vkEgh Lohdkjkok rs yodj dGho Eg.kts rs.ksizek.ks rtoht djrk ;sbZy!Þ v’kh Hksnd ekaM.kh dj.kkjk gk fuca/k R;k eqyhdMwu Kkuksn;P;k laikndkauh ,sdyk vkf.k rs pfdr >kys- R;kauh vgenuxjgwu izdkf’kr gks.kkÚ;k vkiY;k o`Ùki=kr 15 Qscqzokjh o 1 ekpZ 1855 jksth nksu Hkkxkar rks Nkiyk- gk fuca/k R;k o”kkZP;k eqacbZ jkT;kP;k ‘kS{kf.kd vgokyke/;s fczVh’k ljdkjus Nkiyk vlwu uk-fo-tks’kh ;kaP;k 1868 e/;s izdkf’kr >kysY;k ^iq.ks ‘kgkjkps o.kZu* ;k xzaFkkrgh R;kauh rks vkotwZu fnyk vkgs-
lektkdMwu gks.kkjk dMok fojks/k lgu djhr vkf.k f’kO;k’kki ‘kkari.ks ,sdr lkfo=hckbZ dke djhr gksR;k- R;k ‘kkGsr tkrk&;srkuk VksGHkSjo eqíke jLR;koj Fkkacr- vpdV&fopdV cksyr- d/khd/kh nxM ekjhr- vaxkoj fp[ky fdaok ‘ks.k Vkdhr vlr- ‘kkGsr tkrkuk lkfo=hckbZauk lkscr 2 lkM~;k U;kO;k ykxr- jLR;kus tkrkuk [kjkc >kysYkh lkMh ‘kkGsr xsY;kcjkscj cnykoh ykxs- nqljh ijrrkuk [kjkc gksbZ vkf.k rjhgh lkfo=hckbZ vkiY;k dkekr [kaM iMw nsr uOgR;k- gk NG vlkp pkyw jkfgY;kus R;kaP;k o ygku eqyhaP;k laj{k.kklkBh laLFksus ,dk f’kik;kph fu;qDrh dsyh- R;kus fygwu BsoysY;k vkBo.khuqlkj lkfo=hckbZ vkiY;k vaxkoj nxM fdaok fp[ky Qsd.kkÚ;kauk Eg.kr] ßeh ekÖ;k Hkfxuhauk f’kdfo.;kps ifo= dk;Z djhr vlrkuk rqEgh ekÖ;koj ‘ks.k vxj [kMs Qsdhr vkgkr] gh eyk Qqysp okVrkr- bZ’oj rqEgkyk lq[kh Bsoks!Þ cGoar l[kkjke dksYgs ;kaP;k ák vkBo.kh lkfo=hckbZaP;k /kS;kZoj izdk’k Vkd.kkÚ;k vkgsr-
1863 lkyh tksrhjko&lkfo=hckbZauh fo/kokalkBh lq# dsysY;k ^ckygÙ;k izfrca/kd x`gk* ckcrph vLly ekfgrh vyhdMsp miyC/k >kyh vkgs- R;kr lkfo=hckbZapk iq<kdkj gksrk- 4 fMlsacj] 1884 jksth tksrhjkokauh eqacbZ ljdkjP;k voj lfpokyk fyfgysY;k i=kr ;kckckrph lxGh ekfgrh uksanfoysYkh vkgs-
tksrhjkokaps czkEg.k fe= xksoaMs ;kaP;k ?kjh dk’khckbZ ukokph ,d czkEg.k fo/kok Lo;aikfd.khps dke djhr gksrh- gh xjhc dk’khckbZ ,dk pkaxY;k ?kjkrhy lqanj vkf.k pkfj«;laiUu r#.k fo/kok gksrh- ‘kstkjP;k ,dk dkosckt ‘kkL=hcqokus ;k vf’kf{kr fo/kosyk Qlfoys vkf.k rh xjksnj jkfgyh- xHkZikrkps loZ iz;Ru QlY;koj frus ,dk xksaMl ckGkyk tUe fnyk- ‘kkL=hcqokus gkr >VdY;keqGs dk’khckbZ eksB;k dkGthr iMyh- lekt vkiY;kyk txw ns.kkj ukgh ;k HkhrhiksBh frus R;k fujkxl ckGkpk lqÚ;kus xGk dkiyk vkf.k R;kph gR;k dsyh- xksoaM~;kaP;k ijlkrY;k fofgjhr Vkdysys gs izsr Qqxwu oj vkys- iksfylkauh dk’khckbZoj [kVyk Hkjyk- fryk tUeBsisph dkG;k ik.;kph ¼vanekuph½ f’k{kk >kyh- brdh xaHkhj f’k{kk ns’kkr izFkep ,dk L=hyk lquko.;kr vkyh gksrh- 1863 lkyph gh ?kVuk- ;k [kVY;keqGs lkfo=hckbZ&tksrhjko dGoGys- R;kaph feGdr Qkj’kh uOgrh- [kjsrj R;kaps Lor%psp [kk.;kfi.;kps gky gksrs- i.k R;kaps )n; fo’kky gksrs- R;kauh rkRdkG vkiY;k Lor%P;k jkgR;k ?kjh 395] xatisB] iq.ks ;sFks v’kk czkEg.k fo/kokalkBh vkJe lq: dsyk-
ns’kHkj xkTkysY;k dk’khckbZP;k [kVY;kph brj yksd QDr ppkZ djhr jkfgys- lkfo=hckbZ&Tkksrhjkokauh ukMY;k xsysY;k fo/kokalkBh dke lq: dsys- gk Qjd gksrk] R;k nks?kkar vkf.k brj yksdkae/;s- R;kauh ‘kgjHkj vkf.k brj rhFkZ{ks=kaP;k fBdk.kh Tkkfgjkrh ykoY;k- ^dkGsik.kh VkG.;kpk mik;* vkf.k vlk vkJe lq: dsY;kph ekfgrh loZ= iksgpoyh- 1884 i;Zar vusd fBdk.kkagwu 35 czkEg.k fo/kok R;kaP;kdMs vkY;k- R;kaph ckGari.ks Lor% lkfo=hckbZauh dsyh- 1874 lkyh v’khp ,d nqljh dk’khckbZ R;kaP;kdMs vkyh gksrh] frpk eqyxk R;kauh nRrd ?ksryk- R;kyk oS|dh; f’k{k.k nsmu MkWDVj cufoys- R;kus Tkksrhjko& lkfo=hckbZaps dke iq<s pkyfoys- 10 TkqYkS 1887 jksTkh Tkksrhjkokauh vkiys bPNki= d:u rs mifuca/kdkaP;k dk;kZy;kr uksanfoys- R;kr R;kauh lkfo=hckbZp gh lkjh ckGari.ks iksVP;k eqyhalkj[kh djhr vlr vls] vfHkekukus uewn dsys vkgs-

czkEg.k fo/kokaP;k ds’koiukfo:/n ukfHkdkauk la?kfVr d:u R;kapk lai ?kMowu vk.k.;kPkk dYid midze ^nhuca/kw* ps laiknd] dkexkj usrs ukjk;.k es?kkTkh yks[kaMs ;kauh ?kMowu vk.kyk- R;kekxph izsj.kk lkfo=hckbZp gksR;k- ukfHkdkaP;k ;k ,sfrgkfld laikpk o`RRkkar ^fn VkbEl* ;k o`Rri=kus 9 ,fizy 1890 P;k vadkr izfl/n dsyk- baXyaMe/kY;k fL=;kauh R;kauk vfHkuanukps i= ikBfoys-
1877 e/;s egkjk”Vªkr Hkh”k.k nq”dkG iMysyk gksrk- dks.kR;kgh ladVkr enrhyk /kkowu tk.kkjs lkfo=hckbZ&tksrhjko ‘kkar jkg.ks ‘kD; uOgrs- R;kauh xkoksxko fQ:u fu/kh teoyk- MkW- f’kokIIkkalkj[;k vkiY;k fe=kaP;k enrhrwu /kudoMh ;sFks ^fOgDVksjh;k ckykJe* lq: dsyk- R;k fBdk.kh njjkst ,d gtkj xksjxjhceqykauk tso.k ?kkrys tkbZ- lkfo=hckbZ vkiY;k eSf=.khaP;k enrhus Lor% gk Lo;aikd djhr vlr-
     lkfo=hckbZ&Tkksrhjkokauh Lor%P;k ?kjkr ,d olfrx`g pkyfoys gksrs- nwjnwjP;k fBdk.kkgwu eqys f’k{k.kklkBh frFks ;sr vlr- y{e.k djkMh tk;k ák eqacbZP;k fo|kF;kZus ;k olfrx`gkr jkgwu lkfo=hckbZaP;k ek;sph ik[kj.k vuqHkoyh gksrh- R;kus vkBo.khr EgVys vkgs dh] ^^lkfo=hckbZlkj[kh n;kGw o izseG var%dj.kkph L=h eh vtwulq/nk dksBs ikfgyh ukgh- R;k vkEgk eqykaokj vkbZis{kklq/nk tkLr izse djhr vlr-**
     nqlÚ;k ,dk eqykus vkiY;k vkBo.khae/;s lkfo=hckbZapk LoHkko] R;kaph lk/kh jkg.kh vkf.k tksrhjko&lkfo=hckbZaps ijLijkaojhy vikj izse ;kph foy{k.k gn~; uksan dsysyh vkgs- gk egknw lgknw ok?kksys fyfgrks] ^^lkfo=hckbZ Qkjp mnkj gksrh- frps var%dj.k n;sus Hkjysys gksrs- xksjxfjckaoj rh Qkj n;k djh- rh vUunku i.k Qkj djh- rh dks.kklgh tsow ?kkyh- xjhc ck;kaph vaxkojph QkVysyh yqxMh ikgwu R;kauk rh vkiY;k ?kjkrhy yqxMh  nsbZ- R;keqGs rkR;kapk [kpZ Qkj gksr vls- ,[kknsosGh rkR;k fryk Eg.kr] ^^brdk [kpZ d: u;s-** R;koj rh ‘kkari.ks ckjhd glr vls o ^^cjkscj dk; U;k;ps vkgs\** vls rkR;kauk fopkjhr vls- R;koj rkR;k ‘kkareqnzsus FkksMkosG xIi clr vlr- rs nks?ks ,desdkaoj vfr’k; izse djhr vlr-
     ßlkfo=hckbZauk L=h&tkrhP;k mUurhph Qkj dGdG vls- R;k lqLo:i o e/;e cka/;kP;k gksR;k- R;kaph eqnzk usgeh ‘kkar vls- jkx Eg.kwu dk; pht vkgs] rh ;k ckbZP;k xkohp uOgrh- rh usgehp glreq[k vls- ek= frps glw xkykaoj rso<s fnlwu ;sbZy brdsp rs e;kZfnr vls- lkfo=hckbZauk loZ yksd dkdw Eg.kr vlr- ikgw.ks eaMGh ?kjh vkyh Eg.kts fryk dks.k vkuan gksr vls- R;kaP;kdfjrk eksB;k vkoMhus rh xksM/kksM tso.k r;kj djhr vls- tksrhjko lkfo=hckbZauk eksBk eku nsr vlr- fryk rs cksyrkuk ^vkgks&tkgks* ;k cgqekun’kZd ‘kCnkauh gkdk ekjhr vlr-
 ßlkfo=hckbZa rkR;kauk ^’ksVth* Eg.kr- ;k nks?kkar irhiRuhRokps [kjs izse Hkjysys gksrs- lkfo=hckbZauh udks EgVysys dke rkR;k d/khgh djr ulr- lkfo=hckbZ lqfopkjh o nwjn`”Vhph gksrh- frP;kfo”k;h vkIrtukar eksBk vknj gksrk- eqyhaP;k ‘kkGkarwu frps f’kf{kdh.khps dke dsysys vlY;keqGs L=hf’k{k.kkpk foLrkj >kY;kuarj lqf’kf{kr ck;kar frP;kfo”k;h iwT;Hkko ok<ysyk fnlr gksrk- frP;kdMs vlysY;k eqyhauk o fL=;kauk rh usgeh lnqins’k djhr vls- iq.;krhy eksBeksB;k lqf’kf{kr ck;k] iafMrk jekckbZ] MkW- vkuanhckbZ tks’kh vkf.k jekckbZ jkuMs frP;k HksVhl ;sr vlr-
     ßlkfo=hckbZapk iks”kk[k rkR;kaizek.ks vxnh lk/kk vls- frP;k vaxkoj vyadkj ulr- frP;k xG~;kr ,d iksr o eaxGlw= vls- dikGkoj HkyseksBs dqadw ykoysys vls- jkst ldkGh R;k lw;ksZn;kiwohZ Luku d:u lMklaektZu mjdwu ?ksr- R;kaps ?kj usgeh LoPN vls- dkdwauk fnok.k[kkU;kr FkksMkgh dsj vFkok /kwG iMysyh [kir uls- R;kaP;k ?kjkrhy HkkaMh o brj lkeku LoPN vlwu VkiVhihus Bsoysys vls- R;k Lo;aikd Lor% djhr- rkR;kaP;k [kk.;kph o izd`rhph R;k Qkj dkGth ?ksr-**
     izR;{k R;kaP;k lgoklkr okojysY;k O;Drhus dsysys gs o.kZu vkgs- dks.kR;kgh dkYifud o.kZukis{kk vLly nLr,sotkae/khy gs lkfo=hn’kZu foy{k.k izR;;dkjh vkgs- ,d Økafrdkjh L=h frP;k ?kjxqrh thoukr d’kh gksrh] ákpk gk iqjkok gks;-
     lR;’kks/kd lektkph LFkkiuk 24lIVsacj 1873 jksth dj.;kr vkyh- lkfo=hckbZ lektkP;k [ka|k dk;ZdR;kZ gksR;k- lektkus iqjksfgr ukdk:u lk/;k i/nrhus] gqaM;f’kok;] deh [kpkZrys fookg ykok;pk dk;ZØe gkrh ?ksryk- ifgyk fookg 25 fMlsacj 1873 jksth yko.;kr vkyk- uarj gh pGoG ns’kO;kih >kyh- ns’kkP;k gtkjks o”kkZrY;k /kkfeZd ijaijk ukdk:u R;kfo:/n fo/kk;d fonzksg dj.kkjs ts Økafrdkjh ikÅy lektkus mpyys] R;kr lkfo=hckbZapk iq<kdkj gksrk] vls lektkP;k ifgY;k vgokykr vfHkekukus ukasano.;kr vkys vkgs- lkfo=hckbZaph eSf=.k ctwckbZ X;kuksck fuac.kdj ;kaph dU;k jk/kk vkf.k dk;ZdrsZ lhrkjke tckth vkYgkV ;kapk fookg gk ^ifgyk lR;’kks/kd fookg* gksrk- ;k ,sfrgkfld fookgkpk [kpZ lkfo=hckbZauh Lor% dsyk- uksan.kh fookgklkj[kh vl.kkjh gh fookgi/nr vktgh egkjk”Vªkr vusd fBdk.kh vaeykr vkgs- ;k fookgkauk HkVthauh ns’kHkj fojks/k dsyk- dksVZdpsÚ;k >kY;k- lkfo=hckbZ tksrhjkokauk vikj =kl lkslkok ykxyk- i.k rs Mxexys ukghr- R;kauh 4 Qsczqokjh 1889 jksth vkiY;k nRrd iq=kpk fookgns[khy ;kp i/nrhus dsyk- gk Hkkjrkryk vk/kqfud dkGkryk ifgyk vkarjtkrh; fookg gks;- ;k i/nrhe/;s cksgY;koj p<ysY;k uoÚ;k eqykus L=h f’k{k.kkph vkf.k fL=;kauk leku gDd ns.;kph izfrKk djk;ph vlrs- ;krhy eaxyk”Vds Lor% uojk&uojh Eg.krkr- eaxyk”Vds Eg.kts nqljs&frljs dkgh ulwu izfrKk vkgsr- ;k fookgke/;s ßLFkkik;k vkf/kdkj ;k ck;dkaps >Vrls eh lnk- vikZ;k u Hkh eh loZLo dnk-Þ v’kh L=h gDd izLrkiuslkBh >VU;kph izfrKk uojk eqyxk tkfgji.ks ?ksr vls- L=h;kaps vf/kdkj izLrkfir dj.ks gh dkGkph xjt fookgklkj[;k egRokP;k izlaxh v/kksjsf[kr dj.;kph lkfo=hckbZaph gh fopkj/kkjk vktgh y{kf.k;p EgVyh ikfgts-   
lR;’kks/kd lektkps ,d usrs X;kuksck d`”.kkth llk.ks ;kaph dU;k jk/kk mQZ y{eh fgP;k’kh ;’koarpk fookg ;kp i/nrhus dj.;kr vkyk gksrk- yXukvk/kh R;kapk ijLij ifjp; Ogkok vkf.k R;kaP;k vkoMhfuoMh ,desdkauk dGkO;kr ;klkBh jk/kkyk lkfo=hckbZauh vkiY;k ?kjh Bsoys gksrs- frps f’k{k.kgh R;kauhp dsys- ;k dkGkr lkfo=hckbZ frP;k’kh dls okxr ;kps o.kZu tksrhjkokaP;k 24 lIVsacj 1888 P;k i=krwu feGrs- rs llk.;kauk fyfgrkr] ^^lkSHkkX;orhus ,dnkps loZ dke lkaHkkGwu y{ehl vxnh eksdGh Bsoyh vkgs- R;keqGs frpk vH;kl lqjGhr gksr vkgs-** lkfo=hckbZ ;k lklqjokl dj.kkÚ;k lklwckbZ uOgR;k]rj ?kjkrys loZ dke Lor% d:u lqusyk f’k{k.kkyk izksRlkgu ns.kkÚ;k gksR;k-
     tksrhjkokauk tqyS 1887 e/;s i{kk?kkrkpk vktkj >kyk- R;kaps laiw.kZ mtos vax yqGs iMys- vktkji.kkr lkfo=hckbZauh R;kaph vgksjk= ‘kqJw”kk dsyh- Tkksrhjko R;k vktkjkrwu lkojys- ys[ku d: ykxys- ákdkGkr R;kaP;koj vkfFkZd ladVs vks<oysyh gkssrh- R;kaP;k ^iwuk def’kZ;y vW.M dkWVWªfDVax* daiuhpk O;ogkj FkaMkoysyk gksrk- mRiUukps ekxZ can >kysys vkf.k [kpZ rj HkjelkB- olfrx`gs ckygÙ;k izfrca/kd x`g] lR;’kks/kd lekt] eqykps oS|fd; f’k{k.k vkf.k tksrhjkokaps vktkji.k ;keqGs lkfo=hckbZ vMp.khr lkiMysY;k gksR;k- ,dosG rj v’kh vkyh dh vkS”k/kik.;kykp iSls uOgrs- MkW- foJke jketh ?kksys ;kauh eksQr mipkj dsys- ekek ijekuankuh vkfFkZd enr ns.;kckckr cMksnk ujs’k l;kthjko xk;dokM ;kauk i=s fyfgyh- 31 tqyS] 1890 P;k ifgY;k i=kr enrhph f’kQkjl djrkuk R;kauk Tkksrhjko&lkfo=hckbZaP;k Økafrdkjh ;ksxnkukph ,sfrgkfld uksan dsysyh vkgs- ,dk ledkyhu fopkjoarkus dsysys gs ewY;ekiu y{k.kh; vkgs- ^^foijhr dkGkr tksrhjkokauh vkiY;k iRuhyk f’kdowu frP;kOnkjs czkEg.kkaP;k eqyhauk f’kf{kr dsys] rsgh dqBs\ lukrU;kaP;k ckysfdY;kr! egkj&ekax ;k oxkZrhy yksdkalkBh ‘kkGk LFkkiu d:u R;k pkyfo.ks o R;kauk lektkr cjkscjhps LFkku feGowu ns.ks gs R;kaps dk;Z ^flagkP;k xqgsr f’k:u R;kaph vk;kG idM.;klkj[ksp* gksrs- tksrhjkokais{kk R;kaP;k iRuhps dkSrqd djkos rso<s FkksMsp gksbZy- frph ;ksX;rk dk; lkaxkoh\ vkiY;k irhcjkscj frus laiw.kZ lgdk;Z dsys o R;kP;kcjkscj jkgwu okV~;kyk ;srhy R;k loZ gkyvis’Vk HkksxY;k- vls mnkgj.k mPp tkrhae/;slq/nk vk<Gr ukgh- g;k mHk;rkauh yksddk;kZFkZ vkiys lkjs thou [kpZ dsys**
     njE;ku 28 uksOgsacj] 1890 jksth tksrhjkokaps vktkji.kkrp fu/ku >kys- ekekauh 9 vkWxLV 1890 jksth nqljs i= fyfgys gksrs- fMlsacj 1890 P;k ifgY;k vkBoM;kr  ekekauh frljs i= fyfgys- ^^R;k iq.;RE;kus Lor%P;k lq[knq%[kkaph iokZ dsOgkgh dsyh ukgh- R;kauk fpark okVr vls rh iRuhlaca/kh o vkiY;k nRrd iq=klaca/khp gks;- rsOgk vtqugh R;kaP;k dqVaqfc;kal rjh enr ns.;kr ;koh-** vls ekekauh fyfgys- ftn~nh ekekauh fujk’k u gksrk iq<s lyx nhM o”ksZ ikBiqjkok dsyk- njE;kuP;k dkGkr ;’koarP;k ukos R;kauh uohu vtZ lknj dsyk- ekek o tksrhjkokaps Lusgh jkepanzjko /kke.kldj ;kaP;k vYiLoYi enrhoj lkfo=hckbZ vkf.k ;’koar dlscls xqtjk.k djhr gksrs-
     v[ksjhl 10 Qsczqokj 1892 jksth l;kth egkjktkauh lkfo=hckbZP;k enrhlkBh ,d gtkj :i;kapk /kukns’k /kke.kldjkadMs fnyk- lkfo=hckbZauk rqdkjkerkR;k iMoG ;kaP;k ,l~- ukjk;.k daiuhr gh jDde xqarowu O;ktkrwu nj frekghl iUukl :i;s ikBfoys tkr- 2 ekpZ 1892 P;k i=krwu /kke.kldjkauh ^^egkjktkaP;k ers tksrhjkokaps HkO; Lekjd mHkkjys tkos] R;klkBh egkjkt Hkjho vkfFkZd enr djrhy]** vls ekekauk dGfoys- lkfo=hckbZaph egkjktkauh vkLFkkiwoZd pkSd’kh dsY;kpsgh R;kauh fyfgys-
     TkksrhjkokaP;k fu/kule;h lkfo=hckbZ toG gksR;k- R;kauh vkiY;k bPNki=kr vkiys ngu u djrk vkiY;kyk feBkr ?kkywu iqjkos] v’kh bPNk O;Dr dsyh gksrh- R;klkBh ?kjkekxP;k c[kG tkxsr ,d [kM~Mkgh [kksnowu ?ksryk gksrk- ijarq uxjikfydsP;k vf/kdkÚ;kauh fuoklh tkxsr nQu dj.;kph ijokuxh u fnY;kus ukbZZyktkus tksrhjkokaoj vfXulaLdkj djkos ykxys- vaR;;k=sP;k le;h tks fVVos /kjrks R;kyk okjlk gDd feGr vlY;kus tksrhjkokaps iqr.ks vkMos vkys vkf.k ;’koarkyk fVVos /kj.;kyk fojks/k d: ykxys- v’kkosGh lkfo=hckbZ /kS;kZus iq<s >kY;k vkf.k R;kauh Lor% fVVos /kjys- vaR;;k=sr R;k vxzHkkxh pkyY;k vkf.k R;kauh Lor%P;k gkrkus tksrhjkokaP;k ikfFkZokyk vXuh fnyk- HkkjrkP;k gtkjks o”kkZP;k bfrgklkr ,dk L=hus vXuh ns.;kpk gk ifgykp izlax vlkok- R;kauh 30 uksOgsacjyk oktrxktr vLFkh ?kjh vk.kwu tksrhjkokauh r;kj dsysY;k tkxsr R;k iqjY;k- R;k tkxsoj lkfo=hckbZauh rqG’kh o`ankou mHkkjys- vktgh gs rqG’kh o`ankou frFks vlwu R;kP;k ik;k’kh lk/;k nxMkP;k iknqdk mHkkj.;kr vkY;k vkgsr- tksrhjkokaps fpjaru Lekjd lkfo=hckbZauh R;kaP;k ?kjkekxP;k c[kG tkxsr mHkkjys rs vls-
     tksrhjkokaP;k i’pkr lkfo=hckbZauh lR;’kks/kd pGoGhps usr`Ro dsys- ‘ksoVi;Zr R;k dke djhr jkfgY;k- ;’koar MkWDVj >kY;kuarj lSU;kr uksdjhyk ykxyk- R;kyk uksdjhfufeRr vusd ns’kkar tkos ykxys- R;kph iRuh jk/kk mQZ y{eh fgps 6 ekpZ 1895 jksth vi?kkrh fu/ku >kys- lkfo=hckbZ ?kjh ,dV~;k mjY;k-
     1893 lkyh lkloM ;sFks >kysY;k lR;’kks/kd ifj”knsps v/;{kLFkku lkfo=hckbZauh Hkw”kfoys- 1896 P;k nq”dkGkr lkfo=hckbZ [kwi jkcY;k- 1897 lky mtkMys rsp Iysxps FkSeku ?ksÅu- iq.ks ifjljkr njjkst ‘ksdMks ek.kls e: ykxyh- ljdkjus jW.M ;k vf/kdkÚ;kP;k usr`Rok[kkyh Iysxpk cankscLRk dj.;kps dke gkrh ?ksrys- lkfo=hckbZuh ;’koarkyk jtk dk<wu cksykowu ?ksrys vkf.k gMiljyk llk.;kaP;k ekGjkukoj R;kauh ;’koarkyk nok[kkuk ?kkyk;yk ykoyk- R;k Lor% #X.kkaoj mipkj djhr vlr- gk jksx lalxZtU; vkgs gs ekghr vlwugh R;k :X.kkaph lsok’kqJw”kk djhr gksR;k- eqa<ok xkokP;k ikaMqjax ckckth xk;dokM ;k nfyr eqykyk Iysxph ykx.k >kY;kps dGrkp lkfo=hckbZ frdMs /kkoY;k- eqykyk ikBhoj ?ksÅu R;k nok[kkU;kr ikspY;k- t.kw R;k Iysxyk lkaxr gksR;k] ßesjk ikaMqjax ugh nqaxh-Þ ikaMqjaxyk R;kauh okpfoys- i.k R;krp lkfo=hckbZuk Iysxph ck/kk >kyh vkf.k 10 ekpZ 1897 jksth jk=h 9 oktrk R;kaps IysxeqGs fu/ku >kys- R;kaP;k e`R;wph ckreh ^nhuca/kw* us ‘kksdkdwy gksÅu fnyh- ikBhoj nRrd iq=kyk ?ksÅu y<.kkÚ;k >k’khph jk.kh y{ehckbZPkh ^ohjxkFkk* t’kh izsj.kknk;h vkgs r’khp vktkjh nfyr eqykyk ikBhoj ?ksÅu R;kyk Iysxiklwu okpo.kkÚ;k vkf.k Lor% ‘kfgn gks.kkÚ;k lkfo=hckbZaph gh  ‘kkS;ZxkFkk frrdhp iszj.kknk;h vkgs-
     lkfo=hckbZ 1848 rs 1897 v’kh lyx 50 o”ksZ yksdkalkBh jkcr gksR;k- lsok vkf.k d:.kspk ,d vuks[kk vkn’kZ R;kauh ?kkywu fnyk-
     lkfo=hckbZuh ekSfyd ys[ku dsys vkgs- R;k izfrHkkoar do;f= gksR;k- R;kapk dkO;Qqys gk 1854 lkypk dforklaxzg f’k{k.k] L=hiq#”k lerk] lkekftd U;k;] LoPNrk] R;kx] tkrhfueqZyu ;kaps eksy lkax.kkjk vkgs- dkO;Qqys ;k dkO;laxzgkr ,dw.k 41 dfork vkgsr- R;kr izkeq[;kus fulxZfo”k;d] lkekftd] cks/kij vkf.k ,sfrgkfld v’kk dfork vkgsr- R;k foy{k.k jlkG vkf.k vFkZokgh vkgsr-
 ckoud’kh lqcks/k jRukdj & ¼1892½] tksfrckaph Hkk”k.ks] laiknd] lkfo=hckbZ Qqys ¼25 fMlsacj 1856½] ekrqJh lkfo=hckbZaph Hkk”k.ks ¼1892½ o lkfo=hckbZauh tksrhjkokauk fyfgysyh i=s ;krwu lkfo=hckbZaps pfj=dkj] oDrk] i=ys[kd vkf.k laiknd vls iSyw fnlwu ;srkr- gs loZ ok³~e; ^lkfo=hckbZ Qqys lexz ok³~e;* ;k xzaFkkr ,df=r dj.;kr vkysys vkgs ^tksfrckaph Hkk”k.ks* gs iqLrd lkfo=hckbZauh laikfnr dsysys vlwu R;kps ‘kCnkadu pkyZl~ tks’kh ;kauh dsysys vkgs- R;kr tksrhjkokaph 4 Hkk”k.ks vkgsr-
     ^lkfo=hckbZuh tksrhjkokauk fyfgysyh i=s* gh ,dw.k 3 i=s vlwu rh uk;xko o vksrwjgwu fyfgysyh vkgsr-
     ^ekrqJh lkfo=hckbZaph Hkk”k.ks* ;k iqLrdkr m|ksx] fo|knku] lnkpj.k] O;lus] dtZ ;k fo”k;kaojhy R;kaph Hkk”k.ks] ‘kkL=h ukjks ckckth egk?kV ikuljs ikVhy ;kauh laikfnr d:u 1892 lkyh oRly izsl] cMksnk ;sFkwu izdkf’kr dsysyh vkgsr-
     ^ckoud’kh lqcks/k jRukdj* ;k dforklaxzgkr ns’kkpk bfrgkl dkO;:ikus lkafxryk vlwu tksrhjkokaP;k dk;kZps fp=.k R;kr dsys vkgs- ;kr lyx 52 jpuk vkgsr- gs dkO; tksrhjkokaP;k e`R;wuarj 1891 lkyh dsys vlwu iqLrd:ikus rs 1892 lkyh izdkf’kr dj.;kr vkys-
     lkfo=hckbZauh vk;q”;Hkj tksrhjkokauk fnysyh lkFk vtksM gksrh- R;kauh ?kkywu fnysyk L=hiq:”k lerspk vkf.k ‘kkarrke; lgthoukpk vkn’kZ dkykrhy gksrk- L=hf’k{k.k] L=hiq#”k lerk] lkekftd U;k;] tkfrfuewZyu] /kkfeZd izcks/ku ;k {ks=kr R;kauh dsysys ;ksxnku bfrgklkcjkscjp orZekukykgh mtGwu Vkd.kkjs- lkfo=hckbZauh fnysyh gh f’knksjh vkiys thou lnSo le`/n djhr jkghy- izfrHkkoar do;f=] lektØkafrdkjd] la?kVd] nz”Vk usrk vkf.k f’k{k.krK Eg.kwu lkfo=hckbZaps vlysys ;ksxnku vktgh izLrqr vlysys vkf.k 21 O;k ‘krdkrhy HkkjrkP;k mHkkj.khlkBh ladYifp= Eg.kwu mi;qDr Bj.kkjs ;ksxnku vkgs-
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